What position is used for abdominal examinations?
The abdomen is inspected by positioning the patient supine on an examining table or bed. The head and knees should be supported with small pillows or folded sheets for comfort and to relax the abdominal wall musculature. The entire abdominal wall must be examined and drapes should be positioned accordingly.
What are the anatomical landmarks involved in the physical assessment of the abdomen?
Here is a list of useful landmarks: costal margins, xiphoid process, rectus abdominal muscle, linea alba, umbilicus, iliac crest, inguinal ligament, and symphysis pubis. The abdominal exam covers the area down from the xiphoid and costal margins superiorly to the symphysis pubis inferiorly.
How do you palpate the GI tract?
Palpation. Palpation of the abdomen involves using the flat of the hand and fingers, not the fingertips (Figure 80.4) to detect palpable organs, abnormal masses, or tenderness. Again, an orderly approach is necessary to prevent oversights. One should begin in the right upper quadrant with palpation of the liver.
Where do you start Auscultating the abdomen?
◂ Auscultate for bowel sounds. Begin in the right lower quadrant (RLQ), and move in sequence up to the right upper quadrant (RUQ), left upper quadrant (LUQ), and finally the left lower quadrant (LLQ). Auscultate for bruits over the aorta, renal arteries, iliac arteries, and femoral arteries.
Where is the abdominal region located?
In vertebrates, the abdomen is a large body cavity enclosed by the abdominal muscles, at front and to the sides, and by part of the vertebral column at the back. Lower ribs can also enclose ventral and lateral walls. The abdominal cavity is continuous with, and above, the pelvic cavity.
What are the surface landmarks of abdomen?
- epigastric region (epigastrium)
- left hypochondrium (LHC)
- left lumbar region (left flank)
- left iliac fossa (LIF)
- suprapubic (hypogastric) region.
- right iliac fossa (RIF)
- right lumbar region (right flank)
- right hypochondrium (RHC)
What are the 9 quadrants of the abdomen?
These planes divide the abdomen into nine regions; right and left hypochondriac regions, epigastric region, umbilical region, right and left lateral regions of abdomen, hypogastric region, and right and left inguinal regions. Another way to divide the abdomen is with one vertical and one horizontal line.
How do you assess Git?
When performing a focused assessment, you will use at least one of the following four basic techniques during your physical exam: inspection, auscultation, percussion, and palpation. These techniques should be used in an organized manner from least disturbing or invasive to most invasive to the patient (Jarvis, 2011).
How do you inspect a GI?
To diagnose gastrointestinal diseases, healthcare providers prefer a type of X-ray called fluoroscopy, which takes video images of the organs in action. There are different variations of the test, depending on which organs are being examined.
Why do you Auscultate the abdomen first?
Auscultating before the percussion and palpation of the abdomen ensures that the examiner is listening to undisturbed bowel sounds. In addition, if the patient is complaining of pain, leaving the palpation until last allows the examiner to gather other data before potentially causing the patient more discomfort.
What is the order of the abdominal exam and why?
With abdominal assessment, you inspect first, then auscultate, percuss, and palpate. This order is different from the rest of the body systems, for which you inspect, then percuss, palpate, and auscultate.
What are the landmarks of the abdomen quizlet?
Terms in this set (7)
- Xiphoid Process. at the level of the superior margin of the abdomen, level of T 9-10.
- Inferior Costal (Ribs) Margin.
- Illiac Crest.
- Anterior Superior Iliac Spine (ASIS)
- Greater Trochanter.
- Symphysis Pubis.
- Ischial Tuberosity.
What are the components of the abdominal exam?
In a complete physical examination, the abdominal exam classically follows the respiratory examination and cardiovascular examination.
How do you do an abdominal exam?
1 The patient should already be positioned lying flat on the bed. 2 Ask the patient if they are aware of any areas of abdominal pain (if present, examine these areas last). 3 Kneel beside the patient to carry out palpation and observe their face throughout the examination for signs of discomfort.
What are excoriations on an abdominal exam?
Excoriations: scratch marks that may be caused by the patient trying to relieve pruritis. In the context of an abdominal examination, this may suggest underlying cholestasis. Needle track marks: important to note as intravenous drug use can be associated with an increased risk of viral hepatitis.
What are the 4 stages of an abdominal exam?
The abdominal examination is conventionally split into four different stages: first, inspection of the patient and the visible characteristics of their abdomen. Auscultation (listening) of the abdomen with a stethoscope. Palpation of the patient’s abdomen.