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Why is HIV so prevalent in Russia?

Why is HIV so prevalent in Russia?

The HIV/AIDS epidemic in Russia began in people who inject drugs, but heterosexual transmission has increasingly become a major driver. In small surveys, men who have sex with men have extremely high infection rates, but they rarely are studied.

How common is HIV in Russia?

The number of people living with HIV in Russia now exceeds 1 million, according to official statistics. Most experts say the true figure is likely to be at least 1.5 million — around 1 percent of the total population of 146 million — because many people are unaware of their HIV positive status.

Can HIV be spread by needles?

The risk for getting or transmitting HIV is very high if an HIV-negative person uses injection equipment that someone with HIV has used. This is because the needles, syringes, or other injection equipment may have blood in them, and blood can carry HIV.

Is PrEP available in Russia?

But PrEP is currently not available in Russia.

What is the abortion rate in Russia?

Official statistics put the number of abortions at 450,000 in 2020. As of 2021, the abortion rate was 12 abortions per year per 1000 women aged 15–44 years. Abortion statistics were considered state secrets in the Soviet Union until the end of the 1980s.

Does Russia have a drinking problem?

Alcoholism has been a problem throughout the country’s history because drinking is a pervasive, socially acceptable behaviour in Russian society and alcohol has also been a major source of government revenue for centuries. It has repeatedly been targeted as a major national problem, with mixed results.

Is PrEP available in Europe?

In July 2016, the European Medicines Agency recommended granting market authorisation in the European Union for use of the antiretroviral medication Truvada2 for PrEP, to reduce the risk of sexually-acquired HIV infection in adults at high risk.

Do they have birth control in Russia?

The only contraceptive method, whose use is subject to some legal regulation, is sterilization. In Russia, sterilization can be performed to a Russian citizen, who is not younger than 35 years of age or has at least two children, upon receiving his/her written request.

Is abortion legal in China?

Abortion in China is legal and generally accessible. Regulations vary depending on the rules of the province, in Jiangxi non-medically necessary abortions after 14 weeks of pregnancy are not allowed while throughout most of China abortion is legal on demand.

Why do Russian drink so much vodka?

The national drink is an inseparable part of Russian social life. Vodka is drunk everywhere, with the intention of breaking down inhibitions and producing a state of conviviality Russians refer to as dusha-dushe (soul-to-soul).

What drugs are used in Russia?

The vast majority of drug users in Russia use drugs intravenously. Most people use heroin, although khanka, an opiate produced from poppy straw, and vint, a home-made amphetamine, are also used.

What countries is PrEP available?

In 16 countries, PrEP is provided or reimbursed: Belgium, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Denmark, France, Germany, Iceland, Ireland, Luxembourg, Moldova, the Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, and Northern Ireland and Scotland within the UK.

Is PrEP available in Poland?

Arkady Medical Centre in Kraków is another place currently offering PrEP in Lesser Poland. In this facility, a patient also gets information on which tests need to be done and a prescription for PrEP medications.

Are abortions legal in Iran?

Abortion was first legalized in 1977. In April 2005, the Iranian Parliament approved a new bill easing the conditions by also allowing abortion in certain cases when the fetus shows signs of disability, and the Council of Guardians accepted the bill in 15 June 2005.

Is abortion legal in Japan?

Abortion in Japan is only allowed under a term limit of 22 weeks if a continued pregnancy or birth will lead to the endangerment to the health of the pregnant woman or economic hardship. Chapter XXIX of the Penal Code of Japan makes abortion de jure illegal in the country.

Is abortion legal in Egypt?

Abortion in Egypt is prohibited by Articles 260–264 of the Penal Code of 1937. However, under Article 61 of the Penal Code, exceptions may be granted in cases of necessity, which has typically been interpreted to permit an abortion necessary to save the life of the pregnant woman.

Why do Russians get so drunk?

The average Russian drinks more than twice the maximum amount considered healthy by the World Health Organization. So why do Russians drink so much? Experts say it’s a number of factors, including the lack of adequate social services, employment opportunities and depression, among other things.

Why is Russian male life expectancy so low?

The biggest factor contributing to this relatively low life expectancy for males is a high mortality rate among working-age males from preventable causes (e.g., alcohol poisoning, stress, smoking, traffic accidents, violent crimes).

Is there a lot of drugs in Russia?

With 6 percent of the population using drugs, Russia is suffering from serious and problematic drug consumption and a growing public health crisis. The Kremlin regards the drug challenge as a nationalist, securitized, and moral prob- lem.

What is the punishment for drugs in Russia?

Article 228 of the Criminal Code states that possession of a ‘significant amount’ of drugs is punishable with a fine of up to RUB40,000 (€550) or compulsory community service of up to 480 hours, or correctional labour for up to 2 years, or restriction of liberty for up to 3 years, or imprisonment for the same period.