Skip to main content

What is the toxin of Clostridium perfringens?

What is the toxin of Clostridium perfringens?

Clostridium perfringens uses its large arsenal of protein toxins to produce histotoxic, neurologic and intestinal infections in humans and animals. The major toxins involved in diseases are alpha (CPA), beta (CPB), epsilon (ETX), iota (ITX), enterotoxin (CPE), and necrotic B-like (NetB) toxins.

Is Clostridium perfringens an exotoxin or endotoxin?

Large numbers of C. perfringens grow in the intestines, and secrete exotoxin. This exotoxin causes necrosis of the intestines, varying levels of hemorrhaging, and perforation of the intestine.

Does Clostridium perfringens produce exotoxin?

Once inside the infected individual, the bacteria produce the exotoxins (in most cases, as mentioned, alpha toxin produced from type A strains) and the toxins readily break down tissue and also help C. perfringens to outcompete other naturally occurring bacteria [5].

Which type of toxin is produced in food by Clostridium perfringens enterotoxin?

perfringens isolates produce a toxin named C. perfringens enterotoxin (CPE) [3]. Most CPE-positive strains classify as type A, although types C and D strains producing this enterotoxin are also fairly common [4].

Is botulinum toxin an exotoxin?

Botulinum A exotoxin, a neurotoxin produced by the bacterium Clostridium botulinum, is now being used by cosmetically oriented specialists for treatment of a large variety of movement associated wrinkles on the face and neck.

What are the two general types of exotoxins secreted by Clostridium species?

Well-known exotoxins include: botulinum toxin produced by Clostridium botulinum; Corynebacterium diphtheriae toxin, produced during life-threatening symptoms of diphtheria; tetanospasmin produced by Clostridium tetani.

How many toxins are produced by Clostridium perfringens?

Clostridium perfringens is a gram-positive anaerobic rod that is classified into 5 toxinotypes (A, B, C, D, and E) according to the production of 4 major toxins, namely alpha (CPA), beta (CPB), epsilon (ETX) and iota (ITX).

What is the name of C. perfringens alpha toxin What does this cause?

Clostridium perfringens alpha toxin is a toxin produced by the bacterium Clostridium perfringens (C. perfringens) and is responsible for gas gangrene and myonecrosis in infected tissues. The toxin also possesses hemolytic activity.

What toxin does Clostridium botulinum produce?

Botulism (“BOT-choo-liz-um”) is a rare but serious illness caused by a toxin that attacks the body’s nerves and causes difficulty breathing, muscle paralysis, and even death. This toxin is made by Clostridium botulinum and sometimes Clostridium butyricum and Clostridium baratii bacteria.

How does enterotoxin cause vomiting?

Various enterotoxins interact with the enteric nervous system, by stimulating afferent neurons or inducing neurotransmitter release from enterochromaffin cells which result either in vomiting, diarrhea, or in the intestinal inflammation process.

Are cytotoxins exotoxins?

There are 3 types of exotoxins: cytotoxins, neurotoxins, and enterotoxins. (1) Cytotoxins kill the host cell or disrupt its normal functions. An example is Streptococcus pyogenes, which sysnthesizes three types of cytotoxins, which are known as erythrotoxins because they damage red blood cells.

What are examples of exotoxins?

Exotoxins can also be named from the species, which produces them and from the disease with which they are associated. Examples include cholera toxin from Vibrio cholerae, the cause of cholera and tetanus toxin from Clostridium tetani, and the cause of tetanus.

What is Clostridium perfringens enterotoxin?

Clostridium perfringens enterotoxin (CPE) is responsible for causing the gastrointestinal symptoms of several C. perfringens food- and nonfood-borne human gastrointestinal diseases.

What is CPE in Clostridium perfringens?

Clostridium perfringens enterotoxin (CPE) is responsible for causing the gastrointestinal symptoms of several C. perfringens food- and nonfood-borne human gastrointestinal diseases. The enterotoxin gene (cpe) is located on either the chromosome (for most C. perfringens type A food poisoning strains) …

What is the virulence of Clostridium perfringens?

This virulence is largely related to the toxin producing ability of C. perfringens. This chapter primarily focuses on the C. perfringenstype F strains that cause a very common human food poisoning and many cases of nonfoodborne human gastrointestinal (GI) diseases.

What causes C perfringens food poisoning?

What causes C. perfringens food poisoning? Although C. perfringens may live normally in the human intestine, illness is caused by eating food contaminated with large numbers of C. perfringens bacteria that produce enough toxin in the intestines to cause illness. C. perfringens can survive high temperatures.