What lipids are in archaea?
In nature, a diverse range of archaeal lipids is found, the most common are the diether (or archaeol) and the tetraether (or caldarchaeol) lipids that form a monolayer. Variations in chain length, cyclization and other modifications lead to diversification of these lipids.
Is archaeal ether lipids a phospholipid?
Ether lipids, or better, phospholipids, can be of two types, plasmanyl-phospholipids or plasmenyl-phospholipids (plasmalogens), characterized by an ether bond of an alkyl or alkenyl chain with the OH group in position one of the glycerol-phosphate. Usually these lipids contain ethanolamine or choline as head group.
Do archaea have membrane lipids?
The unique membrane lipids of archaea have been implicated not only in the survival and adaptation of the organisms to extreme environments but also to form the basis of the membrane composition of the last universal common ancestor (LUCA).
Which of the following linkage is found in archaeal membrane lipid?
In archaea, isoprenoid hydrocarbon side chains are linked via an ether bond to the sn-glycerol-1-phosphate backbone. In bacteria and eukarya on the other hand, fatty acid side chains are linked via an ester bond to the sn-glycerol-3-phosphate backbone.
Which of these is a characteristic of archaeal cell membrane?
A unique characteristic of Archaea is the presence of ether linkages in the lipids of their cytoplasmic membranes which distinguishes archaea form eukaryotes and most bacteria.
What is the role of tetraether lipids in archaeal cell membranes?
Diether and tetraether lipids are fundamental components of the archaeal cell membrane. Archaea adjust the degree of tetraether lipid cyclization in order to maintain functional membranes and cellular homeostasis when confronted with pH and/or thermal stress.
Can liposomes containing tetraether lipids improve oral peptide delivery by archaea?
The aim of this study is to improve of oral peptide delivery by a novel type of liposomes containing tetraether lipids (TELs) derived from archaea bacteria. Liposomes were used for the oral delivery of the somatostatin analogue octreotide. TELs were extracted from Sulfolobus acidocaldarius and subsequently purified to single compounds.
What is the structure of bipolar tetraether lipids?
The bipolar tetraether lipids are thought to span the membrane, and liposomes made from these lipids form a monolayer rather than the bilayer formed with conventional glycerophospholipids (4,5). The distinctive molecular structure of archaeal lipids allows the microorganisms to maintain membrane integrity in harsh environments.
What are tetraethers made of?
The archaeal tetraether lipid structures found in methanogens, thermophiles (thermoacidophiles) and psychrophiles are characterized by two types of lipid backbones. The first one is called glycerol-dialkyl-glycerol-tetraethers (GDGT, Fig. 1; R = H) and is formed by two biphytanyl ether chains linked at both ends to a glycerol unit .