What is cystic PVL?
Periventricular leukomalacia (PVL) is a softening of white brain tissue near the ventricles. The ventricles are fluid-filled chambers in the brain. These are the spaces in the brain that contain the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF).
What does PVL look like on MRI?
In end-stage PVL, T2-weighted MRI shows abnormally high signal intensity in the bilateral peritrigonal regions and delayed myelination, which is most common in patients with a young gestational age. This appearance resembles normally unmyelinated areas of white matter.
Is PVL a birth injury?
Periventricular Leukomalacia (PVL) Brain Injuries. Periventricular leukomalacia (PVL) is a specific type of injury to the brain which sometimes affects babies born prematurely. It is the most common birth-related brain injury that is caused by a lack of blood flow during labor and delivery.
What are the symptoms of PVL?
The most common PVL symptoms appear by six to nine months of age and may include:
- Developmental delay (mental and physical).
- Difficulty with eye movements.
- Hearing loss and vision problems.
- Learning disabilities.
- Movement issues.
- Seizures (epilepsy).
- Tight muscles, especially in their legs (spasticity).
What is the pathophysiology of periventricular leukomalacia (PVL)?
PVL is a strikingly common causal factor among children with Cerebral Palsy that leads to intellectual impairment and spasticity that require therapy and treatment. What is Periventricular Leukomalacia? Periventricular leukomalacia, or PVL, is a type of brain damage that involves the periventricular white matter of the brain.
What is cystic PVL in cerebral palsy?
These are watershed areas that are sensitive to ischaemic injury. Follow-up scans in the more severely affected patients may reveal the development of cysts in these areas, known as cystic PVL (when cystic PVL is present, it is considered the most predictive sonographic marker for cerebral palsy).
What is the pathophysiology of PVL?
PVL may manifest as cerebral palsy (>50% in the setting of cystic PVL), intellectual disability or visual disturbance. Pathology. It likely occurs as a result of hypoxic-ischemic lesions resulting from impaired perfusion at the watershed areas, which in premature infants are located in a periventricular location.
Which MR findings are characteristic of periventricular hyperintensity (PVL)?
Initial MR images depict areas of T1 hyperintensity within larger areas of T2 hyperintensity. Subsequent cavitation and periventricular cyst formation, features that are required for a definitive diagnosis of PVL, develop 2-6 weeks after injury and are easily seen on sonograms as localized anechoic or hypoechoic lesions.