What acid will etch copper?
Hydrochloric acid is commonly used to etch copper, and it also works well on stainless steel.
Will ammonium persulfate etch steel?
Carbon and Low-Alloy Steels Three acids will work to etch low carbon steel: nitric acid, ammonium persulfate, and iodide/potassium iodide.
How do you make ammonium persulfate solution?
To prepare a 10% (w/v) solution: Dissolve 1 g ammonium persulfate in 10 mL of H2O and store at 4°C. Ammonium persulfate decays slowly in solution, so replace the stock solution every 2-3 wk.
Does nitric acid etch copper?
Copper is etched by (also diluted) nitric acid as well as saturated 30% Fe (Cl)3 solution. Mixtures of NH4OH and H2O2 etch copper as well.
What is the purpose of ammonium persulfate?
Ammonium Persulfate is a colorless, white or straw-colored, crystalline (sand-like) powder with a mild, unpleasant odor. It is used as a bleaching agent, food preservative, and polymerization inhibitor.
Does HCl etch copper?
Hydrochloric acid is extremely poor as an etchant for copper. It also has a very corrosive vapor. Oxidizers are used for etching copper. The etching creates a microscopically roughened surface for bonding.
Can you etch copper with citric acid?
Etchant – Edinburgh Etch (Ferric Chloride and Citric acid) This is a very popular way of working with both copper and steel. Always mix a separate bath for each metal. Always use caution.
What is the chemical or solution used for macro etching?
The most common reagent for macroetching iron and steel is a 1:1 mixture, by volume, of concentrate hydrochloric acid and water. Other reagents included: sulphuric acid, ammonium persulfate, and nitric acid.
What is ammonium persulfate etchant used for?
Ammonium Persulfate Etchant for Thin Film applications. Transene Printed Circuit Copper Etchants (CE-100 and CE-200) are ferric chloride solutions formulated with proprietary wetting antifoam plus chelating additives to optimize etching performance.
How do you etch copper with ammonium persulfate?
In 1908, John William Turrentine used a dilute ammonium persulfate solution to etch copper. Turrentine weighed copper spirals before placing the copper spirals into the ammonium persulfate solution for an hour. After an hour, the spirals were weighed again and the amount of copper dissolved by ammonium persulfate was recorded.
What is the concentration of persulfate in an etching solution?
Etching is continued until the solution has been depleted of persulfate values and reaches a concentration of about 0. 4 to 0. 6 M ammonium persulfate. At this point, the solution is capable of further etching, but the etch rate and quality of etch diminishes and such solutions are normally discarded as spent solutions.
What is the history of the etch property of copper?
This property was discovered many years ago. In 1908, John William Turrentine used a dilute ammonium persulfate solution to etch copper. Turrentine weighed copper spirals before placing the copper spirals into the ammonium persulfate solution for an hour.