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Does adipose tissue regulate immunity and inflammation?

Does adipose tissue regulate immunity and inflammation?

The enrichment of regulatory iNKT cells in adipose tissue maintains inflammation in a quiescent state and regulates the homeostasis of other anti-inflammatory immune cells, including M2 macrophages and Treg cells (92).

How does adipose tissue contribute to inflammation?

Adipose tissue is now considered to be an active endocrine organ that secretes various humoral factors (adipokines), and its shift to production of proinflammatory cytokines in obesity likely contributes to the low-level systemic inflammation that is seen in metabolic syndrome-associated chronic pathologies such as …

What is the link between inflammation and obesity?

There is an association between increased weight gain and increased inflammation. More weight can mean more inflammation. However, reducing excess weight also tends to mean less inflammation. Gut inflammation may also be a contributing factor and can lead to weight gain.

Which cells cause obesity?

The latest studies have demonstrated that obesity is associated with a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-driven lipid accumulation in NK cells, leading to metabolic dysfunctions, like inhibition of perforin, IFN-γ, and granzyme B secretion as well as target cell lysis (178).

Is adipose tissue an immunological organ?

Adipose tissue is a large immunologically active organ during obesity and displays hallmarks of both and innate and adaptive immune response. Despite the presence of hematopoietic lineage cells in adipose tissue, it is unclear whether the adipose compartment has a direct role in immune surveillance or host defense.

How does obesity affect adipose tissue?

Obesity leads to adipose tissue dysfunction, triggering the release of pro-inflammatory adipokines which can directly act on cardiovascular tissues to promote disease.

How do you reduce inflammation in adipose tissue?

Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs have been found to successfully target markers of inflammation and improve glucose control among obese participants. Studies in animal models, as well as humans, have highlighted the potential contribution of adipose tissue inflammation to metabolic disease risk.

What happens to adipose tissue during obesity?

How does obesity produce a state of chronic low-grade inflammation in white adipose tissue?

Obesity results in the activation of the inflammatory signaling pathways mediated by JNK and nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB). Once activated, these pathways induce the production of several pro-inflammatory cytokines in adipocytes, which contribute to insulin resistance and pro-inflammatory macrophages infiltration.

What is the difference between adipocytes and adipose tissue?

Adipose tissue, also known as fat tissue or fatty tissue, is a connective tissue that is mainly composed of fat cells called adipocytes. Adipocytes are energy storing cells that contain large globules of fat known as lipid droplets surrounded by a structural network of fibers.

What happens to adipose cells in obesity?

Does obesity increase adipose tissue?

Abstract. Background. Obesity is a global health problem of epidemic proportions, which is characterized by increased adipose tissue (AT) mass and significant repercussions in different body apparati and systems.

What is believed to be the major cause of excess adipose tissue in most obese individuals?

The primary cause of T2D is obesity-driven insulin resistance (IR) in white adipose tissue (WAT), liver, and skeletal muscle, combined with impaired secretion of insulin by pancreatic β-cells to overcome this resistance [10].

What reduces adipose tissue?

Upon analyses, investigators found that endurance training and resistance training reduced epicardial adipose tissue mass by 32% (95% CI, 10%-53%) and 24% (95% CI, 1%-46%), respectively, when compared with the control group.

How does visceral fat cause inflammation?

The study hypothesized that visceral fat promotes systemic inflammation by secreting inflammatory adipokines into the portal circulation that drains visceral fat. Mean plasma IL-6 concentration was about 50% greater in the portal vein than in the peripheral artery (p = 0.007).

Why does obesity cause low grade inflammation?

In obesity-related proinflammatory states, the increased size of adipocytes plays a decisive role, because, to the extent that it increases adipose tissue, the production of adipocytokines increases, and this triggers a series of inflammation-related pathophysiological processes.

What are the three functions of adipose tissue?

Adipose tissue helps to store energy in the form of fat, cushion internal organs, and insulate the body. There are three types of adipose tissue: white, brown, and beige adipose.