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What is the mechanism of action of antiemetic drugs?

What is the mechanism of action of antiemetic drugs?

The mechanism of action is to block serotonin from interacting with the 5-HT3 receptor. Of these, ondansetron and granisetron are the most frequently encountered. Intravenous (IV) and oral (PO) preparations are available. Side effects include headache, dizziness, and constipation.

Which are antiemetic agents?

Antiemetic Agent

  • Antiemetic.
  • Ondansetron.
  • Metoclopramide.
  • Ion.
  • Cisplatin.
  • Emetic.
  • Antiinflammatory.
  • Poly(ortho Ester)

How does anti vomiting medication work?

Anti sickness drugs work by either: blocking the vomiting centre in the brain. blocking receptors in your gut that trigger nausea in the brain. acting directly on your stomach by increasing the rate at which it empties and moves food into your bowel.

What is the mechanism of action of the phenothiazine antiemetics?

Phenothiazine antiemetics are a type of medicine that may be used to relieve nausea and vomiting. They work by inhibiting dopamine, muscarinic and histamine (H1) receptors generally in the vomiting center and chemoreceptor trigger zone.

What are two types of receptor antagonists that are used as antiemetics?

The most effective options for this situation are usually dopamine receptor antagonists and serotonin receptor antagonists. But for children, only serotonin receptor antagonists are recommended.

What is mechanism of action of chlorpromazine?

Mechanism of Action Chlorpromazine is a member of the typical antipsychotic or neuroleptic drug class, also known as first-generation antipsychotics (FGAs). It produces its antipsychotic effect by the post-synaptic blockade at the D2 receptors in the mesolimbic pathway.

Which phenothiazine is used specifically as an antiemetic and rarely causes extrapyramidal symptoms?

Olanzapine, a second-generation neuroleptic agent, is an attractive alternative because of its strong antinausea and antiemetic action and lack of extrapyramidal side effects.

Is chlorpromazine an antiemetic?

Summary. The effect of chlorpromazine as an anti-emetic and anti-nausea agent was studied, with placebo controls when possible, in 15 chronically ill patients. The drug was found to be effective, greatly surpassing the effectiveness of placebos, in combating the nausea and vomiting due to uremia and radiation therapy.

What is the Colour of phenothiazine?


Chemical formula C12H9NS
Molar mass 199.27 g/mol
Appearance greenish-yellow rhombic leaflets or diamond-shaped plates
Melting point 185 °C (365 °F; 458 K)

What is the pharmacodynamics of diazepam?

CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY Diazepam is a benzodiazepine that exerts anxiolytic, sedative, muscle- relaxant, anticonvulsant and amnestic effects. Most of these effects are thought to result from a facilitation of the action of gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA), an inhibitory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system.

Which ring is present in phenothiazine?

The central C4SN ring is folded in phenothiazines. The compound was originally prepared by Bernthsen in 1883 via the reaction of diphenylamine with sulfur, but more recent syntheses rely on the cyclization of 2-substituted diphenyl sulfides.

What is the pharmacology of antiemetic drugs?

Furthermore, related textbooks were also used for exploring the pharmacology of antiemetic drugs. The antiemetic drugs which were searched were the 5-hydroxytryptamine 3 receptor antagonists (5-HT3RAs), dopamine antagonists, corticosteroids, benzodiazepines, cannabinoids, antihistamines and neurokinin-1 antagonists.

What is the efficacy of antiemetic therapy?

Antiemetics are commonly used to reduce these side effects. However, the current antiemetic efficacy is about 70–80% in patients treated with highly-emetogenic cytotoxic drugs.

What is pharmacodynamics in pharmacology?

Pharmacodynamics Pharmacodynamics is the study of how drugs have effects on the body. The most common mechanism is by the interaction of the drug with tissue receptors located either in cell membranes or in the intracellular fluid.

What is the pharmacology of anti-emetic drugs used to treat CINV?

Pharmacology of anti-emetic drugs 5-Hydroxytryptamine 3 receptor antagonists [5-HT3RAs] The 5-HT3RAs are the standard anti-emetic treatment for acute CINV in patients treated with moderately to highly emetogenic chemotherapy.