What is the pathophysiology of diabetes mellitus?
The pathophysiology of diabetes involves plasm concentrations of glucose signaling the central nervous system to mobilize energy reserves. It is based on cerebral blood flow and tissue integrity, arterial plasma glucose, the speed that plasma glucose concentrations fall, and other available metabolic fuels.
What is pathophysiology of type 2 diabetes mellitus?
The pathophysiology of type 2 diabetes mellitus is characterized by peripheral insulin resistance, impaired regulation of hepatic glucose production, and declining β-cell function, eventually leading toβ -cell failure.
What is diabetes mellitus explain the mechanism of action Pharmacological?
Diabetes is a metabolic disorder of carbohydrate, fat and protein, affecting a large number of population in the world. Diabetes mellitus is not a single disorder but it is a group of metabolic disorder characterised by chronic hyperglycemia, resulting from defects in insulin secretion, insulin action, or both.
What are the medical management of diabetes mellitus?
People with diabetes must take responsibility for their day-to-day care. This includes monitoring blood glucose levels, dietary management, maintaining physical activity, keeping weight and stress under control, monitoring oral medications and, if required, insulin use via injections or pump.
What are the four therapy of diabetes mellitus?
Four DPP-4 inhibitors are FDA approved for use in patients with type 2 DM: sitagliptin, saxagliptin, linagliptin, and alogliptin. These agents are indicated for use as monotherapy or in combination with other agents such as metformin, sulfonylureas, thiazolidinediones, or insulin.
How does metformin work pathophysiology?
At the molecular level, metformin inhibits the mitochondrial respiratory chain in the liver, leading to activation of AMPK, enhancing insulin sensitivity (via effects on fat metabolism) and lowering cAMP, thus reducing the expression of gluconeogenic enzymes.
What is the main function of metformin?
Metformin is used to treat high blood sugar levels that are caused by a type of diabetes mellitus or sugar diabetes called type 2 diabetes. With this type of diabetes, insulin produced by the pancreas is not able to get sugar into the cells of the body where it can work properly.
What are the four classifications of diabetes mellitus?
Categories of DM. There are four major categories of diabetes: type 1, type 2, gestational, and “other.”
Who should not take metformin?
Your doctor will probably tell you not to take metformin. Also, tell your doctor if you are over 65 years old and if you have ever had a heart attack; stroke; diabetic ketoacidosis (blood sugar that is high enough to cause severe symptoms and requires emergency medical treatment); a coma; or heart or liver disease.