Which antiepileptic drugs are teratogenic?
Valproate is the drug with the highest risk, whereas prevalence of MCMs is lowest with lamotrigine, levetiracetam, and oxcarbazepine. For valproate, phenobarbital, phenytoin, carbamazepine, and lamotrigine, the risk of MCMs is dose-dependent.
Are antiseizure drugs teratogenic?
Antiepileptic drugs (AED) have chronic teratogenic effects, the most common of which are congenital heart disease, cleft lip/palate, urogenital and neural tube defects.
Why is phenytoin teratogenic?
Another theory speculates that intermediate metabolites of phenytoin are responsible for its teratogenesis. These intermediate metabolites are free radicals that bind to DNA, proteins and lipids adversely affecting neurodevelopment.
Which antiepileptic drug is safe in pregnancy?
A review of the risks of major congenital malformations and of adverse neurodevelopmental outcomes for antiepileptic drugs by the Commission on Human Medicines has confirmed that lamotrigine (Lamictal) and levetiracetam (Keppra) are the safer of the medicines reviewed during pregnancy.
Are all anticonvulsants teratogenic?
Animal research also suggests that most anticonvulsants are teratogenic in experimental animals when large doses are used, but the effect of valproate sodium on the fetus is poorly known. Cleft lip and palatal defects have been most extensively studied, but defects have also been noted in eyes, heart, and limb buds.
Which of the following antiseizure drugs may produce teratogenicity?
The correct statement is d All of the above. All of the above-given drugs phenytoin, valproate, topiramate are potent teratogens.
Why phenytoin is contraindicated in pregnancy?
Phenytoin is a medication used to treat epilepsy (seizure disorder). If phenytoin is taken by the mother in the first trimester, there is approximately a 5 to 10 percent chance that the baby could be born with a combination of birth defects known as the Fetal Hydantoin Syndrome.
Is it safe to take phenytoin while pregnant?
Phenytoin and pregnancy Phenytoin has been linked to an increased risk of problems for your baby if you take it during pregnancy. You’ll usually only be advised to take it if your doctor thinks the benefits of the medicine outweigh the risks.
How does phenytoin affect fetus?
Today, the known potential adverse effects of phenytoin on the fetus include facial clefting, vitamin K and D deficiencies, heart malformations, limb deformities, and neurologic defects.
What is the contraindications for phenytoin?
Contraindications : Known hypersensitivity to hydantoin products. Because of its effect on ventricular automaticity, IV phenytoin is contraindicated in sinus bradycardia, sinoatrial block, second and third-degree AV block, patients with Adams-Stokes syndrome.
Can phenytoin cause neural tube defects?
Heart defects seem to dominate among children exposed to barbiturates, and to some extent phenytoin and carbamazepine, whereas neural tube defects and hypospadia are more common among offspring of mothers taking valproate during pregnancy.
What pregnancy category is lacosamide?
Lacosamide is listed in Pregnancy Category C. This means that caution is advised, but the benefits of the medicine may outweigh the potential risks.
Is VIMPAT OK to take while pregnant?
Lacosamide Pregnancy Warnings Developmental toxicities have been observed in pregnant rats receiving this drug during pregnancy including increased perinatal mortality and decreased body weights.
Why is phenytoin contraindicated in pregnancy?
Is phenytoin contraindicated in pregnancy?
What are teratogens and are they dangerous?
Teratogens are drugs, chemicals, or even infections that can cause abnormal fetal development. There are billions of potential teratogens, but only a few agents are proven to have teratogenic effects.
Is hyperthermia an example of a teratogen?
Agents that cause hyperthermia are also physical teratogens. These could be saunas, hot tubs, or infections that raise a pregnant woman’s body temperature to 102 degrees Fahrenheit or higher. Scientists have shown that hyperthermia-causing agents acted as teratogens in both animals and humans.
How do teratogens affect tissue development?
Teratogens affect morphogenesis, development and differentiation through cell death, failed cell interactions or alterations in the movement of cells. As these affect the basic processes of cells, not only may a teratogen have a general effect on several tissues, but different teratogens may produce common effects.