What is the principle involved in stabilization pond?
The principal mechanisms for faecal bacterial removal in facultative and maturation ponds are HRT, temperature, high pH (> 9), and high light intensity. Virus and microorganisms get also removed.
What is the percentage removal of body by stabilization ponds?
Explanation: EPA regulations describe stabilization ponds as providing treatment equivalent to secondary treatment removing 65 percent of the BOD and suspended solids from incoming sewage and discharging approximately 50 percent higher effluent concentrations than modern bioreactors.
What are the various waste stabilization ponds?
Waste Stabilization Ponds (WSPs) are large, man-made water bodies. The ponds can be used individually, or linked in a series for improved treatment. There are three types of ponds, (1) anaerobic, (2) facultative and (3) aerobic (maturation), each with different treatment and design characteristics.
Which is a major disadvantage of waste stabilization ponds?
However, the main disadvantage is the limitation of land availability in urban areas (Jiménez, 2006). … Generally, wastewater stabilization ponds are low cost wastewater treatment systems and achieve high enteric pathogen removal in tropical and sub-tropical regions (Mara, 2003; Morris 2003).
What is water stabilization?
A water is said to be stable when it neither dissolves nor deposits precipitates. If the pH is high, stabilization may be accomplished using one of several acids or using CO2, a process called recarbonation. If the pH is low, stabilization may be accomplished using lime or some other bases.
What is stabilization in water treatment?
Stabilization is a chemical or biological process that stops the natural fermentation of the sludge. Chemical stabilization is almost always performed with lime. Thus lime stabilization is the process where the sludge is mixed with lime to raise the pH to greater than 12.
What is the minimum percentage of solids in wastewater?
What is the minimum percentage of solids in wastewater? Explanation: The organic matter consists mainly of proteins, carbohydrates and fats. Between 40 and 65 % of the solids in an average wastewater are suspended.
How do waste stabilization ponds work?
Pond systems stabilize organic material through natural processes involving sunlight, water, nutrients, algae, atmospheric oxygen and bacterial action. Organic matter in the wastewater is broken down by aerobic bacteria and oxygen found in the pond.
What is contact stabilization process?
A modification of the conventional activated sludge process that uses two aeration tanks. One tank is for separate reaeration of the return sludge for at least four hours before it is permitted to flow into the other aeration tank to be mixed with the primary effluent requiring treatment.
How is cod calculated?
There is a formula for calculating COD. Consider the formula for COD calculation: (a – b) X C X 8,000 / the volume of the sample in mL. Let “a” represent the titrant used for your sample expressed in mL. Let “b” represent the titrant used for your blank sample in mL.
How many types of aerate ponds are present?
There are two types of aerated ponds: Aerated facultative ponds or lagoons (see also waste stabilisation pond systems), when it is desired to have a more aerobic system, compacter than normal facultative ponds, or when loads for conventional facultative ponds are too high.
What is WSP treatment?
Waste stabilization pond (WSP) is natural technology which can be installed in centralized or semi-centralized sewerage systems for treatment of domestic and industrial wastewater, septage and sludge, etc. WSPs are highly efficient, simple to construct, low cost and easy to operate.
What is purpose of stabilization?
Sustaining a stabilization policy requires monitoring the business cycle and adjusting fiscal policy and monetary policy as needed to control abrupt changes in demand or supply. In the language of business news, a stabilization policy is designed to prevent the economy from excessive “over-heating” or “slowing down.”
What happens in the stabilization re aeration tank in the contact stabilization process?
A Stabilization Tank is used to reaerate return sludge prior to mixing it with the primary effluent. While in the stabilization tank, most of the organic material that was adsorbed by the microorganisms in the contact tank is metabolized. Kraus Process is used to treat wastewater that is deficient in nitrogen.
What is extended aeration process?
Extended aeration is a method of sewage treatment using modified activated sludge procedures. It is preferred for relatively small waste loads, where lower operating efficiency is offset by mechanical simplicity.
What is VSS in water?
Volatile suspended solids (VSS) is a water quality measure obtained from the loss on ignition of the mass of measured total suspended solids.
What are the different types of waste stabilization ponds?
Schematic of the three main types of waste stabilization ponds (WSPs): (1) anaerobic, (2) facultative and (3) aerobic (maturation), each with different treatment and design characteristics.
What are the different types of pond treatments?
There are three types of ponds, (1) anaerobic, (2) facultative and (3) aerobic (maturation), each with different treatment and design characteristics. WSPs are low-cost for O&M and BOD and pathogenremoval is high. However, large surface areas and expert design are required.
What is a facultative pond used for?
The facultative ponds are the most common type of stabilization ponds in use and are able to completely treat both raw, settled sewage and a wide range of industrial wastewaters, including food and agricultural waste-waters with detention time of 5-30 days.
Are stabilization ponds suitable for human habitat?
Although stabilization ponds can be used in most regions of human habitation, their performances in treating wastes are at best in warm climates with adequate sunlight.