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What is Preductal coarctation of the aorta?

What is Preductal coarctation of the aorta?

Preductal coarctation results when an intracardiac anomaly during fetal life decreases blood flow through the left side of the heart, leading to hypoplastic development of the aorta. This is the type seen in approximately 5% of infants with Turner syndrome.

Why does endocarditis cause coarctation of the aorta?

Aortic coarctation determines a favorable anatomical condition for the development of endocarditis-endarteritis due to the presence of an alteration in blood flow dynamics that favors the appearance of endothelial damage and the adhesion of microorganisms.

What is the pathophysiology of aortic stenosis?

Aortic stenosis (AS) may be defined as narrowing of the aortic valve, due primarily to a combination of progressive fibrosis and calcification of the matrix, with consequent increase in valve stiffness, progressive reductions in valve area and concomitant increases in left ventricular afterload and work.

What happens in coarctation of aorta?

The narrowing, or coarctation, blocks normal blood flow to the body. This can back up flow into the left ventricle of the heart, making the muscles in this ventricle work harder to get blood out of the heart.

Is Eisenmenger syndrome cyanotic or Acyanotic?

Causes. A number of congenital heart defects can cause Eisenmenger syndrome, including atrial septal defects, ventricular septal defects, patent ductus arteriosus, and more complex types of acyanotic heart disease.

What is pre and post-ductal oxygen saturation?

-Pre-ductal and post-ductal pulse O2 saturation (SpO2) monitors (to detect R → L shunting at ductus arteriosus). A difference of ≥10% suggests marked pulmonary hypertension. -Cardiology consultation and echocardiogram to R/O congenital heart disease.

How does coarctation of the aorta affect blood pressure?

Since the narrowing of the aorta is usually located after arteries branch to the upper body, coarctation in this region can lead to normal or high blood pressure and pulsing of blood in the head and arms and low blood pressure and weak pulses in the legs and lower body.

What is the difference between cyanotic and acyanotic?

Cyanotic congenital heart disease: Cyanotic heart disease involves heart defects that reduce the amount of oxygen delivered to the rest of the body. Acyanotic congenital heart disease: With this type of heart defect, blood contains enough oxygen, but it’s pumped throughout the body abnormally.

What is Presystolic accentuation?

A presystolic murmur, also called presystolic accentuation, is a type of diastolic heart murmur typically associated with the opening snap in mitral valve stenosis. It is heard following the middiastolic rumble of the stenotic valve, during the diastasis phase, making it a “late diastolic” murmur.

What causes Gallavardin phenomenon?

The Gallavardin phenomenon is a clinical sign found in patients with aortic stenosis. It is described as the dissociation between the noisy and musical components of the systolic murmur heard in aortic stenosis.

What is the pathophysiology of coarctation of the aorta?

Coarctation of the aorta is a localized narrowing of the aortic lumen that results in upper-extremity hypertension, left ventricular hypertrophy, and malperfusion of the abdominal organs and lower extremities.

What is the pathophysiology of aortic arch aneurysm?

Aneurysm of the aorta can occur in unrepaired coarctation of the aorta and has been described in patients with Turner syndrome and coarctation of the aorta. In addition, endocarditis can result in aortic arch aneurysm (mycotic aneurysm), usually distal to the site of obstruction.

What is the medgen UID for coarctation of the aorta?

Preductal coarctation of the aorta MedGen UID: 539555 •Concept ID: C0265878 Congenital Abnormality Synonym: Proximal aortic coarctation SNOMED CT: Preductal coarctation of aorta (13867009); Adult-type coarctation (13867009) HPO: HP:0005151 Term Hierarchy GTR MeSH CClinical test,  RResearch test,  OOMIM,  GGeneReviews,  VClinVar  

Is coarctation of the aorta juxtaductal?

In the past, coarctation of the aorta has been described as preductal (or infantile) type or postductal (or adult) type, depending on whether the coarctation segment is proximal or distal to the ductus arteriosus, respectively. However, a closer examination of the anatomy suggests that all coarctations are juxtaductal.